Scientists worldwide have made significant progress in identifying various beneficial substances found in plants, known as nutraceuticals and phytochemicals, which can enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy by inhibiting cell signaling mechanisms associated with chemo-resistance. However, there is a lack of research regarding the potential anticancer and chemo-preventative properties of numerous naturally occurring agents derived from Amaranthus plants, including nutraceuticals and phytochemicals. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the effects of an Amaranthus-based diet on the eicosanoid profiles of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways for cancer treatment. Our research uncovered several promising agents isolated from amaranth plants, such as quercetin, rutin, apigenin, squalene, and certain phytosterols like spinasterol, which have demonstrated notable anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, existing literature indicates that these nutraceuticals can effectively inhibit the biosynthesis of COX and LOX enzymes, consequently suppressing the production of eicosanoids such as prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and leukotrienes. Hence, the nutraceuticals and phytochemicals derived from amaranth plants have the potential to serve as valuable adjunctive therapies, enhancing the efficacy of existing chemotherapy as clinically beneficial anticancer chemosensitizers.
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